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主题: 海尔在日本市场占有率。海尔到底购买了三洋牌的什么部门?阅读智力考试!
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作者 海尔在日本市场占有率。海尔到底购买了三洋牌的什么部门?阅读智力考试!   
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文章标题: 海尔在日本市场占有率。海尔到底购买了三洋牌的什么部门?阅读智力考试! (2493 reads)      时间: 2012-10-15 周一, 05:48   

作者:雅歌海归商务 发贴, 来自【海归网】 http://www.haiguinet.com

海尔到底购买了三洋牌的什么部门?阅读智力考试!
中国海尔集团从日本松下(Panasonic)购买三洋电子公司。今年(2012)三月份完成了并购案。请看以下两个发布新闻稿和一篇研究报道。
1. 标题:“Haier Completes SANYO Acquisition in Southeast Asia” (https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/haier-completes-sanyo-acquisition-in-southeast-asia-145305625.html


转载如下:

SINGAPORE , March 31, 2012 /PRNewswire-Asia/ -- Today, Haier Group Corporation ("Haier"), the world's no. 1 white goods manufacturer, and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. ("SANYO Electric") held a closing ceremony in Singapore to officially mark the completion of Haier's acquisition of SANYO Electric's refrigerator, washing machine and other consumer electric appliances business in Japan , Indonesia , Malaysia , the Philippines and Vietnam .

To mark the occasion, Mr. Du Jingguo, Vice President of Haier Group and Masahiro Kinoshita , Vice President of Planning for SANYO Electric each signed the acquisition completion document. This was followed by Mr. Du accepting SANYO's Equity Book from Mr. Kinoshita, signaling the official completion of the transition period between the two companies.

As per the terms outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding that Haier signed with SANYO Electric in July 2011 , the two companies have completed the acquisition process by the end of March as planned, including the transfer of SANYO Electric's operations as well as customer care and after-sales service in each of the above markets. In addition, Haier's dual-brand strategy is now in full operation across these markets. In line with the agreement, Haier will operate in Japan as its Asian Headquarters, using its "Haier" and "AQUA" brands. Haier will use the "Haier" brand in Vietnam , Indonesia , the Philippines and Malaysia , while simultaneously using the "SANYO" brand in these markets for a specified period of time.

"SANYO Electric has already earned a strong reputation for its R&D, product line and marketing network in Japan and Southeast Asia . Our dual-brand strategy was designed to leverage SANYO Electric's competitive advantages while enhancing the new markets' offerings through Haier's strengths in innovation, quality and design. We hope Haier can bring additional high-quality choices to consumers in these markets to help them better enjoy their life," said Mr. Du Jingguo, Vice President of Haier Group.

The acquisition of SANYO Electric's consumer electric business was made to enhance Haier's R&D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities in Japan and Southeast Asia to better serve the needs of local consumers.

"As the global leader in the white goods industry, Haier's goal is to be among the top three brands in these markets. The SANYO Electric acquisition will help us achieve this goal faster," added Mr. Du.
提问:根据上文请回答
A。 海尔买了三洋的几种产品部门?(冰箱算一种产品,洗衣机算另一种)
B。海尔有没有购买三洋在中国的以上部门?三洋在中国有没有以上生产部门?
C.海尔买了“日本三洋”的几种产品部门?


2. 人民日报英文版,(https://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90778/7620716.html
转载如下:


Haier, Sanyo sign merger agreement
(Beijing Daily)
09:52, October 19, 2011
Edited and translated by Yao Chun, People's Daily Online

China Haier Group and Japan's Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. yesterday reached a final merger and acquisition agreement, under which Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. will sale its refrigerator and washing machine business in Japan and its white home appliances business in four countries in Southeast Asia to Haier.

The content of the final agreement is nearly the same as the content of the memorandum signed on July 28 by both companies. Sanyo will transfer the equity of its nine wholly-owned companies and joint ventures in Japan and Southeast Asia to Haier.

Of these companies, the four in Japan are dedicated to the development, production and sales of washing machines and the refrigerators, while the other five located in Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia are dedicated to the production and sales of other domestic appliances.

In addition, Sanyo agreed to allow Haier to sell domestic appliances, such as refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners marked with the Sanyo brand in these four Southeast Asia countries for a set number of years.

According to the final agreement, both sides will finish the related business delivery between January and March 2012.

Du Jingguo, the vice president of Haier Group said: "This acquisition is not a simple resource acquisition and superposition but the creative development of the coordination between Haier and former Sanyo. The most precious wealth is talent, and this acquisition enables Haier to gain about 3,100 valuable staff resources from Sanyo."
提问:根据上文请回答
A. 三洋的洗衣机和冰箱是在哪些国家制造的?
B. 海尔有没有购买日本三洋除了洗衣机和冰箱部门?海尔能不能使用(挂)三洋品牌卖海尔其他家电产品?
3.Beyond China: Can a New Acquisition Help Haier Crack Japan? (特别推荐这篇很有分量的分析,与俺未找到此文之前的分析完全一样)
https://www.knowledgeatwharton.com.cn/index.cfm?fa=printArticle&articleID=2484&languageid=1
转载如下:
Beyond China: Can a New Acquisition Help Haier Crack Japan?
It's not often that loss-making companies are enticing acquisition targets. But there is good reason why Haier Group has just shelled out 10 billion yen (US$132 million) for Japan’s Sanyo Electric, a company that's been in the red since 2005. While Sanyo is the world’s ninth-largest washing machine maker and the eighth-largest refrigerator maker in terms of volume, far more importantly for Haier is that it has a foothold in Japan.
Although Haier reigns as an appliance-making juggernaut at home in China, growth abroad has been tough. As attractive as it is for manufacturers worldwide, Japan, in particular, has been a hard market for Haier to crack. “The Japanese market is very difficult to get into unless you buy an established brand or business network,” says Mauro F. Guillen, a Wharton management professor. But, “of course, the Japanese market is very big and attractive.”
That's not lost on Haier, whose latest acquisition closed on October 17. Though it trails big-name brands such as Panasonic, Toshiba and Hitachi, Sanyo has an enviable track record that stretches back to when Toshio Iue set up a refrigerator business in 1952. Iue -- the brother-in-law of Konousuke Matsushita, founder of Panasonic, which was Sanyo's previous owner -- correctly bet on the firm's appliances being able to win the loyalty of overburdened Japanese housewives. Within three years, the brand became a top seller.
And despite its financial struggles, Sanyo has stood out as an industry innovator, launching a washing machine that cleans without detergent in 2001 and introducing its Aqua series, which launders clothes without water, in 2006. Such feats have proven popular, especially with Japanese consumers, in an age of belt-tightening and environmental awareness.
The challenge now for Haier is to leverage Sanyo's brand. Playing up the firm's Japanese roots could help Haier distance itself from what dogs many a Chinese company -- a reputation among global consumers for products that are as cheap as they are shoddy. But achieving that feat will take time, notes Shaun Rein, managing director of China Market Research Group in Shanghai. Recent scandals both inside and outside China in sectors ranging from toys to pharmaceuticals haven't helped. “It took Toyota and Sony decades to be able to create the impression in the minds of Western consumers that they are innovative and have premium products," Rein says. "Now, Chinese companies like Haier are having the same difficulty.”
Barrier Breaking
Breaking down barriers is old hat for Zhang Ruimin, Haier’s CEO and chairman, who took over the helm of the struggling state-owned refrigerator factory in 1984. Corporate legend has it that back then, Zhang had workers take sledgehammers to 76 defective refrigerators to drive home the importance of quality. Haier has come a long way since, with total group sales last year reaching RMB 35.8 billion (US$5.6 billion), compared with RMB 11.2 billion of sales at Wuxi Little Swan, China's second-biggest washing machine maker.
But being big in China is one thing; being big globally is another. Haier is the world’s largest refrigerator manufacturer and the second-largest manufacturer of washing machines by volume, but that's largely due to an enormous home market, which accounts for most of the company's sales. To diversify geographically and expand outside China, Haier needs to smash its biggest barriers yet.
Global growth via acquisition hasn't been straightforward for Haier. An attempt to buy its way into the American market failed with an aborted bid for Maytag in 2005. Was the deal, as observers suggested at the time, scuttled by the political uproar caused by China National Offshore Oil Company's attempt to buy Unocal in the U.S.? That's hard to say. But the closest Haier has come to another North American foray since was reported talks to buy the Louisville, Ky.-based appliance unit of GE in 2008. (In the end, GE decided to hang on to the business.)
The Sanyo acquisition is focused more on Asia. Haier is buying Sanyo’s washing machine and refrigerator units in Japan and in six Southeast Asian subsidiaries. Products will be sold under both Haier and Sanyo brand names in Southeast Asia, and under Haier and Sanyo's Aqua brands in Japan. Haier also will purchase Sanyo's 40% share of Haier Sanyo Electric Company, a design and research and development joint venture.
But there's a small twist in the deal. As part of a larger restructuring, Panasonic was keen to sell Sanyo, apart from one key part -- the brand's washing machine joint venture in China. Hefei Rongshida Sanyo Electric in eastern China’s Anhui province is 30% owned by Sanyo, with the remainder held by the Chinese partner, Rongshida Group, and its workers. The venture, which makes Sanyo washing machines, is doing well -- but Haier, as market leader, clearly didn't see the stipulation as a deal-breaker.
Cost and Quality
Can Haier succeed where many have failed? Consider computer maker Lenovo. Similar to Haier, Lenovo wanted to become a global player. Buying a well-established foreign brand appeared to be the fastest route to that goal. But after Lenovo purchased IBM's[r1] worldwide PC business in 2004, the American firm lost market share in Japan. To regain ground, Lenovo then bought 51%of NEC’s computer business earlier this year.
It's been nearly 10 years since Haier's arrival in Japan. In 2002, it set up a sales unit in Osaka in western Japan, and formed a joint venture with Sanyo to market Haier’s white goods in the country. The strategy didn’t work, and the joint venture ended in 2007. “It was a complete failure because Sanyo's then chairman, Satoshi Iue, overestimated Haier’s ability to lower the cost of its products and control quality,” states Tomoo Marukawa, a China industry and economy specialist and professor at Tokyo University’s Institute of Social Sciences.
Wharton management professor Saikat Chaudhurinotes that although Haier has not been able to break into the Japanese market, they're not the only ones. "American firms have also had a hard time penetrating that market," he says. A case in point: GE, which had only 0.5% market share in refrigerators in Japan in 2010, according to London-based Euromonitor International.
Euromonitor reported that by 2010, Haier had only a 0.2% share of Japan's major electric appliances market, with sales totaling 10 billion yen. Even that share was hard won, and happened only after the company began selling mini refrigerators and washing machines not sold by Japanese manufacturers.
Haier's share in Japan's washing machine market is currently close to zero, and will be around 15% thanks to Sanyo, says Cristina Baus, a Euromonitor consumer applianceanalyst. Panasonic led the market in 2010 at 34.9%, while Toshiba had 24%, Hitachi 17.9% and Sharp 12.5%. As for Haier’s main strength -- refrigerators -- it had 0.8% market share in Japan in 2010, which will grow to 8.1% due to the Sanyo acquisition. That still puts Haier significantly behind a number of rivals -- Panasonic held 28.5% of the market last year, followed by Mitsubishi Electric at 17.1%, Toshiba at 13.7%, Hitachi at 12.5% and Sharp at 11.1%.
Where Haier may make headway is by marrying its ability to squeeze costs with Sanyo’s technology, notes Rein, author of a forthcoming book titled, The End of Cheap China. Baus adds that Haier, “could gain a good competitive advantage against local manufacturers in Japan if it manages to introduce a portfolio of low-cost and energy-efficient appliances to the Japanese market, something that Sanyo's technological edge … could provide."
The Chinese company is inheriting 3,100 Sanyo employees, including 310 workers based in Japan. Adjusting to a new employer could be a big shock for some of them. “The biggest challenge is the integration of Sanyo into Haier and the retention of key Sanyo staff members,” according to Katherine Xin, a management professor at China Europe International Business School in Shanghai. “I do not think Haier will keep Sanyo the same way it has been running. Haier will try to change Sanyo and lower costs." But Xin warns: "When you start integration, you cannot avoid conflict.”
Rein agrees, despite the fact that Haier generally has a good track record of hiring local senior management to run its overseas businesses. “When you buy a big company like Sanyo, they have pride in their culture," he says. "That could be a big problem. When Lenovo acquired IBM, it was really a disaster because there was a lot of tension between them.”
Haier will also have its work cut out further adapting its products for Japan. For example, Rein notes, "Chinese generally do not use ice cubes in drinks, so you do not have to have a big ice cube box in refrigerators,” unlike in Japan. “What you have in Japan is great technology and tools specific for the Japanese market," adds Rein, who has advised South Korean clients on how to localize their products for China.
Korean companies have been struggling to get a foothold in Japan's consumer electronics market for more than 30 years, with limited success. Seoul-based Samsung, one of the world’s fastest-growing IT and consumer electronics companies, entered Japan’s white goods market in the 1980s, but then abandoned the effort in 2000 in order to shift to audiovisual equipment.
Korean and Chinese manufacturers have made the mistake of relying on product designs that imitate their Japanese rivals rather than being innovative, says Marukawa of Tokyo University. Finicky Japanese consumers might set aside their doubts about the quality of those foreign brands, but usually only if the prices are competitive. “They might sell well if the price were 30% lower than Japanese ones. But [companies have] not had the ability to lower costs [by] so much,” he states.
In the rare cases in which foreign manufacturers have won over Japanese consumers, they usually have done so through unique technologies. The ever-popular iPhone is the most obvious example. Vacuum cleaner maker Dyson of the United Kingdom and Delonghi of Italy, whose heaters are a top seller in Japan, have also done well because their design concepts are different than what's already on the market. “Foreign brands face difficulties in marketing, but if their products have a special creativity and are different from any in Japan, they can easily overcome that,” Marukawa says.
Time on Its Side?
Haier's plan now is to use a dual-brand strategy. Its own machines, made in China, cost about 30,000 yen in Japan, while the Sanyo Aqua machines sell for more than 50,000 yen. “Haier should definitely capitalize on the Sanyo brand equity to succeed in Japan," Baus notes. "Sanyo is perceived as a technologically savvy brand with a strong focus on producing energy-efficient appliances. This should be Haier’s main focus.”
Unlike Lenovo, which was contractually obliged to not use the IBM brand name on its PCs within five years its acquisition, Haier has some breathing space, says Wharton's Chaudhuri. “Haier does not have to face that pressure. They can choose when to phase out Sanyo’s brand." In the meantime, he adds, Haier could deploy a “back end” approach, by adopting Sanyo's best practices and processes to improve Haier’s own product offerings.
Eventually, however, Haier will have to decide whether it will drop the Sanyo and Aqua brands. “Haier will have to work hard to build up its own brand so it will be strong enough to stand by itself,” Baus notes.
For Southeast Asia, which accounts for 26% of Sanyo’s global sales volume, the strategy for success appears more clear-cut. While Haier’s presence in the region is fairly limited, Sanyo is a well-established brand among mid- to high-end consumers. Excluding China and India, the region accounts for 11% of the world’s sales volume for major appliances, making the market almost the same size as that of Latin America. “For a company the size of Haier, missing out on this market would be a mistake,” says Baus.With its new acquisition, Haier gains a 5% share in washing machines and 10% in refrigerators in Indonesia, 14% in refrigerators in Thailand, 13% in refrigerators in Philippines, and in Vietnam, 42% in washing machines and 68% in refrigerators, according to Baus.
It's likely that other Chinese companies will be watching to see how Haier handles the acquisition. Chinese firms now have the financial wherewithal to snap up global brands, particularly those that have been hit by the downturn and are available at bargain prices. “In the coming years, many Chinese firms will be taking advantage of low valuations to acquire foreign brands and shortcut the brand-building process,” Rein says. The shopping spree is just beginning.
提问:根据上文请回答
C. 三洋的洗衣机和冰箱是在哪些国家制造的?
D. 海尔的海尔品牌在日本的家电产品市场占有率有多少?海尔品牌的冰箱市场占有率有多少?2010年全年金额为多少美元(以1美元=80日圆算)?
E. 海尔在东南亚地区市场收购之前占有率为多少?
F. 三洋在中国有没有生产洗衣机?有没有外销日本或东南亚四国?


综合以上三篇文章与报道,可以归纳为以下几点:
1. 海尔花100亿日圆(1亿3钱百万美元)买三洋的赔钱部门(自2005年以来赔钱),总共9个三洋旗下独立单位,四个单位在日本,五个在东南亚四国。在日本的4个单位是冰箱与洗衣机的研发部门与工厂。
2. 五个在东南亚四国的主要的也是冰箱与洗衣机的工厂,或许还附带生产其他的家电,所占比例应该不大,所以三篇报道里只是略提。这五个在东南亚四国工厂里必也有生产冰箱与洗衣机。理由是冰箱与洗衣机都是又大又重的家电产品,运输成本高若只有日本工厂生产销往东南亚四国几乎不可能。况且日本部门只有员工330人。而海尔完成收购案后在东南亚四国的市场占有率从5%到68%不等,而海尔原有品牌在该市场知名度“相当有限”。
3. 海尔购买的是市场占有率或“老虎皮”,也就是三洋的品牌。在日本这张虎皮可盖两种产品:冰箱与洗衣机。在东南亚四国,这张虎皮可盖海尔自产的多种家电产品,不限于冰箱与洗衣机。
4. 海尔有买到三洋冰箱与洗衣机的技术。
5. 海尔品牌占日本家电市场0.2%, 购买三洋牌后,海尔品牌的市场占有率基本不变。除非海尔想出如何搭售策略,比如买一个三洋牌洗衣机(冰箱)送一部海尔小冰箱,烤面包机等。
6. 中国的三洋品牌冰箱,洗衣机和其他家用电器依旧属于三洋和三洋母公司Panasonic,因为这是三洋家电唯一赚钱的部门。这家是三洋与中资合资公司。三洋占30% 股份。这家公司不出口冰箱,洗衣机到日本。也不出口其他家电到东南亚四国。可以合理认为这家合资公司不出口任何三洋品牌的家用电器,纯内销。

作者:雅歌海归商务 发贴, 来自【海归网】 http://www.haiguinet.com









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